Standard metro trains of China

With the past 20 years having seen an explosion in new metro systems being built in cities across China, a number of standards have developed for the trains that run their tracks. Here is a quick summary of the different standards they are built to.

DKZ16 trainset T410 arrives into Dongsishitiao station

Type A

Type A trains are the highest capacity metro train used in China, and are powered by 1500V DC overhead.

Carriages of Type A trains are:

  • 22 metres long
  • 3.0 meters wide
  • five doors per side
  • carry 310 passengers
  • negotiate curves down to 300 meters radius
  • climb gradients up to 3.5%
  • support a line capacity of 45,000 to 70,000 passengers/hour

Line using Type A trains include.

  • Beijing Subway: Line 3, Line 11, Line 12, Line 14, Line 16, Line 17, Line 19
  • Tianjin Metro: Line 7, Line 8
  • Shanghai Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 7, Line 9, Line 10, Line 11, Line 12, Line 13, Line 14, Line 15, Line 16, Line 17, Line 18
  • Guangzhou Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 8, Line 11, Line 12, Line 13
  • Nanjing Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 10
  • Shenzhen Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 4, Line 5, Line 6, Line 7, Line 8, Line 9, Line 10, Line 11, Line 12, Line 13, Line 14, Line 15, Line 16, Line 17, Line 18, Line 19, Line 20, Line 21, Line 22, Line 23, Line 24, Line 25, Line 26 Line, Line 27, Line 28 ,Line 29, Line 30, Line 31, Line 32
  • Wuhan Metro: Line 5, Line 6, Line 7, Line 8, Line 10, Line 11, Line 12, Line 16, Xingang Line, Yangluo Line
  • Chengdu Metro: Line 5, Line 6, Line 7, Line 8, Line 9, Line 10
  • Hangzhou Metro: Line 7, Line 8, Line 10
  • Shijiazhuang Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3
  • Urumqi Metro: Line 1
  • Changsha Metro: Line 6
  • Zhengzhou Metro: Line 5
  • Taiyuan Metro: Line 1, Line 2

Type B

Type B trains are slightly smaller then Type A, allowing them to run on more constrained rail corridors, and can be powered by 1500V DC overhead or 750V DC third rail.

Carriages of Type B trains are:

  • 19 metres long
  • 2.8 meters wide
  • four doors per side
  • carry 240 passengers
  • negotiate curves down to 250 meters radius
  • climb gradients up to 3.5%
  • support a line capacity of 25,000 to 50,000 passengers/hour

Lines using third rail powered Type B1 vehicles include:

  • Beijing Subway: Line 1, Line 2, Line 4, Line 5, Line 7, Line 8, Line 9, Line 10, Line 13, Line 15, Daxing Line, Fangshan Line, 8 Tong Line, Yizhuang Line, Changping Line, Yanfang Line
  • Tianjin Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3
  • Wuhan Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4
  • Shenzhen Metro: Line 3
  • Guangzhou Metro: Line 14, Line 21
  • Kunming Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 6
  • Qingdao Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 8, Line 11, Line 13
  • Wuxi Metro: Line 1, Line 2

And using overhead powered Type B2 vehicles.

  • Beijing Subway: Line 6
  • Tianjin Metro: Line 4, Line 5, Line 6, Line 9, Line 10, Line 11
  • Nanjing Metro: Line 4, Line S1, Line S3, Line S7, Line S8, Line S9
  • Chengdu Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4
  • Suzhou Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 4
  • Chongqing Rail Transit: Line 1, Line 6
  • Zhengzhou Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 14, Suburban Line
  • Xi’an Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 14
  • Shenyang Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 4, Line 9, Line 10
  • Guangzhou Metro: Line 3, Line 7, Line 9, Line 10, Line 14, Line 21
  • Guangzhou Metro, Foshan Metro: Guangfo Line
  • Foshan Metro: Line 2, Line 3
  • Hangzhou Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 4, Line 9, Line 16
  • Shaoxing Metro: Keqiao Line (connected with Shaoxing Metro Line 1)
  • Ningbo Metro: Line 1, Line 2
  • Hefei Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3
  • Harbin Metro: Line 1, Line 3
  • Changchun Rail Transit: Line 1, Line 2
  • Changsha Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 5
  • Dalian Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 12
  • Dongguan Metro: Line 2
  • Fuzhou Metro: Line 1
  • Guiyang Rail Transit: Line 1
  • Nanchang Metro: Line 1, Line 2
  • Nanning Metro: Line 1, Line 2, Line 3
  • Xiamen Metro: Line 1
  • Jinan Metro: Line 1, Line 3
  • Luoyang Metro: Line 1

Type C

Type C trains are smaller again.

Carriages of Type C trains are:

  • 18.9 metres long
  • 2.6 meters wide
  • carry 200 – 240 passengers
  • negotiate curves down to 50 meters radius
  • climb gradients up to 6%
  • support a line capacity of 10,000 to 30,000 passengers/hour

Compared to the other types, they see very limited use.

  • Changchun Rail Transit: Line 3, Line 4, Line 8
  • Shanghai Metro: Line 5, Line 6, Line 8

Derivative types

Type As trains were built specially for the Chongqing Rail Transit system.

Their size is midway between the Type A and Type B trains, being able to negotiate steeper grades and sharper curves in mountainous environments.

  • 19.0 metres long
  • 3.0 meters wide
  • carry 254-266 passengers
  • negotiate curves down to 250 meters radius
  • climb gradients up to 5%
  • support a line capacity of 25,000 to 50,000 passengers/hour

These trains are only used in Chongqing.

  • Chongqing Rail Transit: Line 4, Line 5, Line 9, Line 10, Ring Line

Type AH trains were specially made for Hangzhou Metro.

Their size is midway between the Type A and Type B trains.

  • 19.52 metres long
  • 3.0 meters wide
  • carry 254 passengers
  • negotiate curves down to 250 meters radius
  • climb gradients up to 3.5%
  • support a line capacity of 25,000 to 50,000 passengers/hour

These trains are only used in Hangzhou.

  • Hangzhou Metro: Line 3, Line 5, Line 6

Type LB trains are powered by linear motors.

They are slightly smaller than Type B trains, and can negotiate steeper grades and sharper curves.

  • 16.8 metres long
  • 2.8 meters wide
  • carry 215-240 passengers
  • negotiate curves down to 100 meters radius
  • climb gradients up to 6%
  • support a line capacity of 25,000 to 40,000 passengers/hour

But have not been widely deployed.

  • Guangzhou Metro: Line 4, Line 5, Line 6
  • Beijing Subway: Capital Airport Line, Line 28

And ‘Urban’ trains

These electric multiple units trains are used on the longer Chinese metro lines.

Type A ‘Urban’ trains.

  • 22 metres long
  • 3 meters wide

Used on.

  • Chengdu Metro: Line 17, Line 18, Line 19
  • Hangzhou Metro: Airport Express
  • Fuzhou Metro: Binhai Express
  • Wuhan Metro: Line 19
  • Shanghai Metro: Chongming Line

Type B ‘Urban’ trains.

  • 19 metres long
  • 2.8 meters wide
  • Nanjing Metro: Line S6
  • Zhejiang Rail Transit: Haining Line
  • Jinhua Rail Transit: Jinyi East Line

Type D ‘Urban’ trains.

  • 22 metres long
  • 3.3 meters wide
  • Beijing Subway: Daxing Airport Line, Pinggu Line
  • Guangzhou Metro: Line 18, Line 22
  • Wenzhou Rail Transit: Line S1, Line S2
  • Chongqing Rail Transit: Line 15, Line 27

So which type of train?

Type A trains are higher capacity due to their larger size, with a 6-car Type A train carrying the same number of passengers as a 8-car Type B train.

Crowded train on Line 2 of the Beijing Subway

However despite tunnels bored using a standard 5.2 meter TBM being large enough to support both Type A and Type B trains, Type B trains have become the choice of train for new build metro systems across China.

The exception is the core lines of the metro systems in major cities which use larger Type A trains, a handful of cities were physical constraints have limited the size of trains used, and a handful of one-off standards which have not been adopted.

Footnote: data in table form

Vehicle TypeVehicle length (m)Vehicle width (m)CapacityCurve radius (m)Max gradient (%)Capacity (10,000 pax/hour)
Type A22.03.0-3.083103003.54.5-7.0
Type B19.02.8-2.882402503.52.5-5.0
Type C18.92.6200-315506.01.0-3.0
Type AS19.03.0-3.08254-2662505.02.5-5.0
Type AH19.523.0-3.082542503.52.5-5.0
Type LB16.82.8215-2401006.02.5-4.0
Urban Type A22.03.03503.0
Urban Type B19.02.83003.0
Urban Type D22.03.34003.0

Sources

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Hong Kong buses with doors on both sides

I’ve written before about traffic in Hong Kong and Macau that drives on the left, vehicles in mainland China drive on the right, and how vehicles on the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge switch from one side to the other – but how do the passengers onboard cross-border buses avoid stepping out in traffic? With two sets of doors!

Double deck shuttle bus heads from Hong Kong to Macau

Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Shuttle Bus

Nicknamed “Golden Bus”, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Shuttle Bus company operates a shuttle service from the HZMB Hong Kong Port to the HZMB Zhuhai Port and HZMB Macau Port terminals, using a fleet of right-hand drive double-deck buses.

But with a second set of passenger doors on the right-hand side of the bus.

They also have a number of similarly equipped single-deck low-floor buses.

In addition to a handful of high-floor road coaches.

These buses were delivered in 2018, with the door on the right side catching the eye of netizens.

The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge will be opened to traffic this year. In the future, citizens can use different means of transport to travel between the three places via the bridge. One of the cheaper ways is to take the shuttle bus.

Some netizens recently photographed a “Golden bus” believed to be a bridge shuttle bus. The front position of the bus is marked with the words “Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao”. Although it is a double-decker bus on the right, its design is different from that of the bus door in Hong Kong, which is located on the left. There are doors on both sides of the “Jinba” body, which is believed to be compatible with the different driving modes of the three places.

According to the Tender Document for Shuttle Buses of the Bridge, the operator is required to provide 90 to 140 shuttle buses for daily operation and no more than 30 spare buses. The shuttle bus will operate 24 hours a day in conjunction with the bridge, with an average of no more than 5 minutes during peak hours, 10 to 15 minutes during non-peak hours, and 15 to 30 minutes during overnight hours. It is reported that the shuttle bus fare will be “flatter than the boat”, and the one-way fare will be less than HK$100.

Huanggang-Lok Ma Chau Shuttle Bus

Nicknamed “Emperor Bus”, the Huanggang-Lok Ma Chau Shuttle Bus is another cross border service, using normal right-hand drive low-floor buses.

However they once operated a handful of Scania L94UB buses which had a second door on the right side of the body.

And other operators

Tour operators in Hong Kong such as China Travel Service operate right-hand drive coaches, registered for cross-border use, and provided with doors on the right-hand side for kerbside boarding when parked in mainland China.

China Travel Service cross-border road coach in Hong Kong, with a door on the right-hand side

As do the operators of the Sheung Shui to Man Kam To Control Point shuttle bus.

The Hong Kong – Macau Express service.

And “Motor Transport Company Of Guangdong And Hong Kong“.

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Shanghai to Beijing by high speed train

Continuing my recent theme of travels across mainland China, today we’re retracing my journey from Shanghai to Beijing by high speed train.

China Railways CRH380B high speed trains stabled outside Shanghai Hongqiao railway station

Getting to the station

I made my way from my hotel across Shanghai by metro.

Line 2 train arrives into Songhong Road station

Arriving at Hongqiao Railway Station.

Shanghai Metro concourse at Hongqiao Railway Station

I rode the escalator up a level.

Access to the Shanghi Metro platform level at Hongqiao Railway Station

And another.

Escalators link the basement transit connections to the waiting room on the top floor

Until I could finally see the sky again.

Glass roof above the main waiting room

Now – which ticket office do I need to go to?

Diagram of the three levels of Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station

Luckily I had already organised my ticket ahead of time, so just had to pick it up.

Crowds pack the ticket machines and booking office windows

Then head off to the waiting room.

Glass roof above the main waiting room

Which was massive.

Looking across the main waiting room

You need to pass through a security checkpoint on the way in.

Metal detectors and x-ray machines deployed to check all incoming rail passengers

And put your luggage through an x-ray machine.

Metal detectors and x-ray machines deployed to check all incoming rail passengers

But once inside, there are seats everywhere.

Green 'priority' seats are closer to the boarding gates

Boarding gates along the walls.

Ticket gates stand at the escalators leading down to the platform

And stalls selling snacks.

All kinds of snackfoods for sale from a mobile cart

Finally time to board.

Ticket checker at the boarding gate

Everyone lines up to have their tickets checked.

Hoards of passengers push and shove to pass through the ticket gates

Then down an escalator to platform level.

Fellow passengers board the train at Shanghai Hongqiao railway station

Time for a quick photo before departure.

Photographing the rear end of the CRH380B high speed train

And at 11am on the dot, away we go.

Departing Shanghai Hongqiao railway station

Departing Shanghai

Shanghai Hongqiao Station has 30 tracks, serving trains across multiple high-speed rail routes, including the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway my train was using.

I was sitting in first class.

First class sitting area of a China Railway CRH380B high-speed train

A copy of the ‘People’s Railway Daily’ newspaper in my seatback.

Copy of the 'People's Railway Daily' newspaper

After leaving the station, we paralleled a CRH2 high-speed train out of Shanghai.

Paralleling a CRH2 high speed train outside Shanghai Hongqiao

And passed through an array of flyovers leading back towards the platforms.

An array of flyovers lead to the platforms at Shanghai Hongqiao

Down below, the Hongqiao EMU Depot.

China Railways CRH380B high speed trains stabled outside Shanghai Hongqiao railway station

With sidings that went on for seemingly forever.

China Railways high speed trains stabled outside Shanghai Hongqiao railway station

Maintenance facility for the hundreds of high-speed trains based in Shanghai.

Maintenance depot for high speed trains outside Shanghai Hongqiao railway station

And into the countryside

The outskirts of Shanghai were covered with tiled roofs.

Field of tiled roofs on the outskirts of Shanghai

Our train soon hit it’s top speed of 301 km/h.

Hitting 301 km/h between Shanghai and Beijing

We soon passed the shores of Yangcheng Lake.

Fishermen on Yangcheng Lake

Located 60 kilometres out of Shanghai.

Apartments being built beside Yangcheng Lake

Apartment blocks beside European-style houses.

European-style houses beside Yangcheng Lake

Our train passed over many freeways.

120 km/h speed limit on this Chinese highway

Fields and village houses.

Fields and village houses

Power lines.

Transmission lines and lakes

And even a ferris wheel atop a shopping centre!

Ferris wheel atop a shopping centre in Changzhou

First stop – Nanjing South

For much of the journey, we were speeding through minor stations at 300 km/h.

Speeding through Suzhou North railway station at 300 km/h

Until we approached the junction station of Nanjing South.

Flyovers leading into Nanjing South railway station

We passed over roads leading to nowhere.

Roads to nowhere around Nanjing South railway station

As the number of tracks multiplied.

Tracks lead into Nanjing South railway station

Until we arrived into the platform.

CRH2 high speed train stopped at Nanjing South railway station

Then after a quick stop, we were off again.

Into the mountains

As we continued north towards Beijing, we passed the shadows of Mount Tai.

Apartment blocks at Tai'an, in the shadows of Mount Tai

Power lines.

Transmission lines on the slopes of Mount Tai

Running parallel to the ‘old’ Beijing-Shanghai railway.

Mix of bridges on the 'old' Shanghai-Beijing railway past Mount Tai

Overtaking slower locomotive hauled passenger trains.

Overtaking a HXD3C class hauled passenger train on the 'old' Shanghai-Beijing railway

And even slower freight services.

Overtaking a HXD3 class hauled freight on the 'old' Shanghai-Beijing mainline between Tai'an and Jinan

Second stop – Jinan West

We came back into urban life on the outskirts of Jinan.

Light industry and apartments side by side on the outskirts of the city of Jinan

Greeted by railway viaducts.

Viaducts carry high-speed railway tracks into Jinan West station

And a traction power substation.

Railway traction power substation outside Jinan West station

Before we arrived at Jinan West station.

China Railways CRH2 high speed train arrives at Jinan West station

We were timetabled there for a few minutes, I stepped out for a quick photo.

Tail end of our train during the station stop at Passengers waiting on the platform at Jinan West station

As did the smokers for a cigarette break.

Smokers take a quick cigarette break during a short stop at Jinan West station

Then away we went, passing another railway junction.

Pair of high-speed railway tracks curve away from the mainline towards a train depot in Jinan

And over the Yellow River.

Transmission lines cross the Yellow River outside Jinan in Hebei province

Into Hebei province

Fields and apartment blocks greeted me to Cangzhou.

Burning off outside the city of Cangzhou in Hebei province

And a massive coal fired power station.

Coal fired power station outside the city of Cangzhou, Hebei province

We flew over a ‘normal’ speed railway.

Passing over the top of a 'normal' speed railway

And a freeway.

Only a few trucks on this six lane freeway

Another freeway.

Looking down on an almost empty freeway

A third one.

Six lanes of freeway and hardly any traffic

And a fourth.

Road traffic on the outskirts of Beijing

A “confinement farm” for dairy cows.

Dairy cows cooped up at a Chinese farm

Chinese-style ‘passive solar’ greenhouses.

More brick-walled greenhouses under construction

And new apartment developments creeping across the countryside.

Apartment developments creep across the Chinese countryside

Third stop – Tianjin West

New apartment blocked towered over the traditional houses of Tianjin.

New apartments tower over traditional houses outside Tianjin

Tower cranes everywhere.

And still more construction to be seen

We sped past the offices of German engineering firm Siemens.

Siemens office in the Chinese city of Tianjin

And a sea of blue roofed industrial buildings.

Blue roofed buildings are incredibly common in China

And another coal fired power station.

Power station outside Tianjin

Then a quick station stop – and off again.

And finally into Beijing

Our high-speed train was now running parallel with the ‘conventional’ railway.

China Railways tank wagons on a freight train

Our train speeding past loaded freight trains.

China Railways box van on a freight train

And shunting yards.

Looking down on freight train on the parallel railway line

We passed People’s Liberation Army equipment located onto a military train.

People's Liberation Army 8X8 wheeled self-propelled gun loaded on a military train

And slower local passenger trains.

Overtaking a red 'K' train on the 'old' railway alongside

Chimneys welcoming us to the outskirts of Beijing.

Power station chimney towers over on the outskirts of Beijing

Along with telecommunication towers.

Telecommunication tower in the southern districts of Beijing

Traffic on the roads.

More traffic on the roads as we approach Beijing

And an Ikea store.

Ikea store in the south of Beijing

Finally, more tracks joined our route.

Looking down on more railway tracks outside Beijing

And we finally arrived into Beijing South railway station at 3:55pm – 4 hours 55 minutes after we left Shanghai.

CRH380B high-speed train awaiting departure from Beijing South railway station

The end

Time to say goodbye to our train.

Boarding a CRH train just on sunset at Beijing South

A train driver salutes his departing colleague.

Train driver salutes his approaching colleague

As the train sets off into the sunset.

CRH train heads off into the sunset at Beijing South railway station

As I end the day the same way I started – a subway ride to my hotel.

Arrivals concourse at Beijing South railway station

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Railfan’s guide to Shanghai, China

My 2013 visit to Shanghai was only for a few days, so I didn’t get much time to look around the city. None the less, here are a few suggested places for a railfan to visit.

Shanghai Metro train on line 3 arrives at Baoshan Road station

The obvious

The Shanghai Maglev is the obvious first thing to check out – it run from Shanghai Pudong International Airport to the outskirts of central Pudong.

Maglev train awaiting departure from Longyang Road station

From there you can explore the Shanghai Metro.

Shanghai Metro train on line 4 arrives at Baoshan Road station

Line 4 having elevated tracks.

Shanghai Metro train on line 4 arrives at Baoshan Road station

And Line 2 has stations without platform screen doors.

Platform gates installed at Century Park station, but not in use

The Pudong Airport end of Line 2 is another section of elevated tracks.

Reversing siding at the Shanghai end of Haitiansan Road Station

Haitiansan Road Station allowing you to watch Shanghai Maglev trains speed past at 431 km/h.

Standing at Haitiansan Road Station, as a maglev train speeds past at 300 km/h

The odd

The banks of Huangpu River at The Bund are a popular tourist spot.

Lights of the Pudong skyline start to switch on

To watch the sun go down over Pudong.

Twilight on The Bund

But in the backstreets you can find a forgotten mode of public transport – electric trolleybuses.

Lineup of trolleybuses at the route 20 terminus in Shanghai

And down below is a one-of-a-kind mode of transport – the cable hauled trains of the Bund Sightseeing Tunnel.

Meanwhile a long way off the beaten tourist track is another unusual beast – the rubber tyred Zhangjiang Tram, the vehicles guided by a central rail and powered by overhead wires.

Rubber tired tram departs the terminus at Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park Station

And a spot to watching passing trains

Finally, I managed to find a nice spot to watch the procession of mainline trains departing Shanghai Railway Station.

Locomotive hauled train arrives into Shanghai just before dark

Diesel locomotives shunting them into the platforms.

Diesel locomotive DF7G 0039 between shunting moves

Then departing behind mainline electric locomotives.

Electric locomotive SS7D 0016 departs Shanghai Railway Station with a rake of '25Z' class carriages

I also saw a handful of China Railway High-speed trains sharing the tracks.

China Railways high speed CRH380A train departs Shanghai Railway Station

To get to the spot, head to the south plaza at Shanghai Railway Station.

Open plaza outside Shanghai Railway Station

And head west to the main road.

And follow it up to the Hengfenglu Junction bridge over the railway.

Office buildings and apartment towers in Shanghai

Like so.

Footnote

I also managed to find a carriage yard beside Baoshan Road station on Lines 3 and 4 of the Shanghai Metro.

More stabled carriages near Shanghai Railway Station

All I had to do was peer over the walls of the elevated station.

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Cable hauled trains under Shanghai’s Huangpu River

Shanghai seems to be the China’s home of gadgetbahns – modes of public transportation that are unnecessary complicated. The Shanghai Maglev and the Zhangjiang Tram are two examples, but Shanghai has a third – the cable hauled trains that run through the Bund Sightseeing Tunnel.

Going for a ride

Rather misleadingly named, the Bund Sightseeing Tunnel doesn’t actually offer any sightseeing – just a light show, as passengers are taken beneath the Huangpu River between The Bund and Pudong.


Video by Luke Starkenburg

The tunnel was developed by the Shanghai Lujiazui Development Group, with construction commencing in early 1998. At the time they described it as:

The Huangpu River Pedestrian Tunnel, China’s first river pedestrian tunnel with the length of 646.70 meters, located between the Nanjing East Road Bund in Puxi and the Oriental Pearl TV Tower in Pudong Lujiazui, is scheduled to be completed on October 1st, 1999 and to be officially put into operation in April 18, 2000.

Tunnel visitors will be transported in the automatic, unmanned, cable-towed, and closed-type carriages of the advanced technology of the nineties. It takes about 2.5 to 5 minutes to make a one-way ride beneath the river at a speed of 5 meters per second. At its maximum handling capacity it can transport 5,280 persons per hour or 28,000 passengers per day.

Modern science and high technologies will be employed to make use of the inside space of the tunnel, showing various pictures, scenes, and background music reflecting people, history, culture, science and technology, and landscapes, to make the cross-river ride extremely interesting, amusing, and exciting, and to leave riders a nice memory of the underground ride.

Trains through the tunnel use the SK-6000 people mover system developed by Soulé of France, which uses cables beneath the rails to pull small driverless cabins along the track.

Travel time between the two stations is 2.5 to 5 minutes, with an overall capacity of 5280 passengers per hour. Platform screen doors prevent passengers from accessing the track at platforms.

Separate arrivals and departure platforms being provided at each station.

And a 7 meter diameter rotating turntable turns each cabin onto the return track, with up to 14 vehicles being able to operate at once. A small maintenance workshop is located at the Pudong Station.

The tunnel was completed in April 2000, with trial operation commencing in July 2000, opening to passengers on 1 January 2001.

In the first two years 5.5 million tourists used the tunnel, with 10 million passengers reached in September 2005. As of 2006 the average annual patronage was around 2 million.

Building it

Construction of the Bund Sightseeing Tunnel commenced in February 1998, the 646.70 meter long tunnel being dug using a second-hand earth pressure balance shield tunnel boring machine purchased from France.

The diameter of the shield was 7.65m and the radius inside the tunnel is 3.38m. The tunnel lining ring is assembled from six reinforced concrete segments, the ring width is 120cm, and the thickness is 35cm.


Architectural Design of Shanghai Bund Sightseeing Tunnel. Underground Engineering and Tunnel. 2001

Between the two stations, the tunnel follows a curve with a radius of 400 meters, coming within 1.4 metres of the existing Shanghai Metro line 2 tunnels. The main strata traversed by the tunnel are clay, silty clay, silty clay and sandy silt.


Architectural Design of Shanghai Bund Sightseeing Tunnel. Underground Engineering and Tunnel. 2001

The maximum gradient is 4.8%, with the tunnel passing only 5.67 metres below the Huangpu River. The track gauge is 1350mm, with each carriage being 2070mm wide and around 5 metres long.


Summary of shield construction technology of Shanghai urban traffic tunnel

Stations are located underground – that in Pudong having 3 levels below ground.


Architectural Design of Shanghai Bund Sightseeing Tunnel. Underground Engineering and Tunnel. 2001

And the station in Puxi having four levels reaching a maximum depth of 26.20 meters. Twelve escalators and four lifts serve each station, the maximum vertical rise being 11.07 meters.


Architectural Design of Shanghai Bund Sightseeing Tunnel. Underground Engineering and Tunnel. 2001

Further reading

Sources

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